# Symbols list

All symbols can be obtained from the model `here`

.

## Sets and subsets

Type |
Symbol |
Description |
---|---|---|

Set |
tech |
Generation technologies |

Subset |
dis(tech) |
Dispatchable generation technologies |

Subset |
nondis(tech) |
Nondispatchable generation technologies |

Subset |
con(tech) |
Conventional generation technologies |

Subset |
res(tech) |
Renewable generation technologies |

Set |
sto |
Storage technologies |

Set |
rsvr |
Reservoir technologies |

Set |
h |
Hours |

Set |
n |
Nodes |

Set |
l |
Lines |

Set |
ev |
EV types |

Set |
bu |
Building archtypes for heating |

Set |
ch |
Heating combination type |

Subset |
hst(ch) |
Heating technology that feeds to storage |

Subset |
hp(ch) |
Heat pump technologies |

Subset |
hel(ch) |
Hybrid electric heating technologies - electric part |

Subset |
hfo(ch) |
Hybrid electric heating technologies - fossil part |

Set |
dsm |
DSM technologies |

Subset |
dsm_shift(dsm) |
DSM load shifting technologies |

Subset |
dsm_curt(dsm) |
DSM load curtailment technologies |

Set |
reserves |
Reserve qualities |

Subset |
reserves_up(reserves) |
Positive reserves |

Subset |
reserves_do(reserves) |
Negative reserves |

Subset |
reserves_spin(reserves) |
Spinning reserves |

Subset |
reserves_nonspin(reserves) |
Nonspinning reserves |

Subset |
reserves_prim(reserves) |
Primary reserves |

Subset |
reserves_nonprim(reserves) |
Nonprimary reserves |

Subset |
reserves_prim_up(reserves) |
Primary positive reserves |

Subset |
reserves_nonprim_up(reserves) |
Nonprimary positive reserves |

Subset |
reserves_prim_do(reserves) |
Primary negative reserves |

Subset |
reserves_nonprim_do(reserves) |
Nonprimary negative reserves |

## Parameters

Category |
Type |
Symbol & domain |
Description and units |
---|---|---|---|

Balance |
Time-series |
d(n,h) |
Demand hour h [MWh] |

Generation |
Costs |
c_fix(n,tech) |
Annual fixed costs [EUR per MW per year] |

Generation |
Costs |
c_inv_overnight(n,tech) |
Investment costs: Overnight [EUR per MW] |

Generation |
Costs |
c_do(n,tech) |
Load change costs DOWN [EUR per MWh] |

Generation |
Costs |
c_up(n,tech) |
Load change costs UP [EUR per MWh] |

Generation |
Costs |
co2price(n,tech) |
CO2 price in [EUR per ton] |

Generation |
Costs |
fuelprice(n,tech) |
Fuel price conventionals [EUR per MWh thermal] |

Generation |
Costs |
interest_rate_tech(n,tech) |
Investment costs: Interest rate [%] |

Generation |
Technology |
carbon_content(n,tech) |
CO2 emissions per fuel unit used [tons per MWh thermal] |

Generation |
Technology |
co2_cap |
Yearly CO2 overall cap |

Generation |
Technology |
co2_cap_exog(n) |
Yearly CO2 cap per node |

Generation |
Technology |
eta(n,tech) |
Efficiency of conventional technologies [0 1] |

Generation |
Technology |
grad_per_min(n,tech) |
Maximum load change relative to installed capacity [% of installed capacity per minute] |

Generation |
Technology |
lifetime_tech(n,tech) |
Investment costs: technical lifetime [a] |

Generation |
Technology |
m_e(n,tech) |
Investment: maximum installable energy [TWh per a] |

Generation |
Technology |
m_p(n,tech) |
Investment: maximum installable capacity per technology [MW] |

Generation |
Technology |
phi_min_res(n) |
Minimum renewables share per node [0 1] |

Generation |
Time-series |
phi_res(n,tech,h) |
Renewables availability technology res in hour h [0 1] |

Storage |
Costs |
c_fix_sto(n,sto) |
Annual fixed costs [EUR per MW] |

Storage |
Costs |
c_inv_overnight_sto_e(n,sto) |
Investment costs for storage energy: Overnight [EUR per MWh] |

Storage |
Costs |
c_inv_overnight_sto_p(n,sto) |
Investment costs for storage capacity: Overnight [EUR per MW] |

Storage |
Costs |
c_m_sto(n,sto) |
Marginal costs of storing in or out [EUR per MWh] |

Storage |
Costs |
interest_rate_sto(n,sto) |
Investment costs: for storage Interest rate [%] |

Storage |
Technology |
eta_sto(n,sto) |
Storage efficiency [0 1] |

Storage |
Technology |
etop_max(n,sto) |
Maximum E to P ratio of storage types [#] |

Storage |
Technology |
lifetime_sto(n,sto) |
Investment costs: for storage technical lifetime [a] |

Storage |
Technology |
m_sto_e(n,sto) |
Investment into storage: maximum installable energy [MWh] |

Storage |
Technology |
m_sto_p(n,sto) |
Investment into storage: maximum installable power [MW] |

Storage |
Technology |
phi_sto_ini(n,sto) |
Initial storage level [0 1] |

Reservoir |
Costs |
c_fix_rsvr(n,rsvr) |
Annual fixed costs [EUR per MW per a] |

Reservoir |
Costs |
c_inv_overnight_rsvr_e(n,rsvr) |
Investment costs for reservoir energy: Overnight [EUR per MWh] |

Reservoir |
Costs |
c_inv_overnight_rsvr_p(n,rsvr) |
Investment costs for reservoir capacity: Overnight [EUR per MW] |

Reservoir |
Costs |
inv_interest_rsvr(n,rsvr) |
Investment costs for reservoir: Interest rate [%] |

Reservoir |
Technology |
eta_rsvr(n,rsvr) |
Generation efficiency [0 1] |

Reservoir |
Technology |
inv_lifetime_rsvr(n,rsvr) |
Investment costs for reservoir: technical lifetime [a] |

Reservoir |
Technology |
m_rsvr_e(n,rsvr) |
Investment into reservoir: maximum installable energy [MWh] |

Reservoir |
Technology |
m_rsvr_p(n,rsvr) |
Investment into reservoir: maximum installable capacity [MW] |

Reservoir |
Technology |
min_flh(n,rsvr) |
Min flh per node and reservoir |

Reservoir |
Technology |
phi_rsvr_ini(n,rsvr) |
Initial reservoir level [0 1] |

Reservoir |
Technology |
phi_rsvr_lev_min(n,rsvr) |
Minimum filling level [0 1] |

Reservoir |
Technology |
phi_rsvr_maxout(n,rsvr) |
per node and reservoir |

Reservoir |
Technology |
phi_rsvr_min(n) |
Minimum hourly reservoir outflow as fraction of annual energy [0 1] |

Reservoir |
Technology |
phi_rsvr_minout(n,rsvr) |
per node and reservoir |

Reservoir |
Time-series |
rsvr_in(n,rsvr,h) |
Reservoir inflow in hour h [0 1] |

Transmission |
Costs |
c_fix_ntc(l) |
Fixed costs [EUR per MW per a] |

Transmission |
Costs |
c_inv_overnight_ntc(l) |
Investment costs in: overnight [EUR per MW] |

Transmission |
Costs |
inv_interest_ntc(l) |
Investment costs: Interest rate [%] |

Transmission |
Technology |
dist(l) |
Distance covered by link l [km] |

Transmission |
Technology |
inc(l,n) |
Incidence index of link l on node n |

Transmission |
Technology |
inv_lifetime_ntc(l) |
Investment costs: technical lifetime [a] |

Transmission |
Technology |
inv_recovery_ntc(l) |
Investment costs: Recovery period in [a] |

Transmission |
Technology |
m_ntc(l) |
Investment into NTC: maximum installable capacity [MW] |

Electric vehicles |
Costs |
c_m_ev(n,ev) |
Marginal costs of discharging V2G [EUR per MWh] |

Electric vehicles |
Costs |
pen_phevfuel(n,ev) |
Penalty for non-electric PHEV operation mode [EUR per MWh] |

Electric vehicles |
Technology |
eta_ev_in(n,ev) |
Electric vehicle efficiency of charging (G2V) [0 1] |

Electric vehicles |
Technology |
eta_ev_out(n,ev) |
Electric vehicle efficiency of discharging (V2G) [0 1] |

Electric vehicles |
Technology |
ev_phev(n,ev) |
Defines whether an electric vehicle is a PHEV REEV [1 if yes 0 otherwise] |

Electric vehicles |
Technology |
ev_quant(n) |
Overall number of electirc vehicles [#] |

Electric vehicles |
Technology |
n_ev_e(n,ev) |
Electric vehicle battery capacity [MWh] |

Electric vehicles |
Technology |
phi_ev_ini(n,ev) |
Electric vehicle charging level in initial period [0 1] |

Electric vehicles |
Technology |
phi_ev(n,ev) |
Share of electric vehicles per load profile in actual scenario [0 1] |

Electric vehicles |
Time-series |
ev_ed(n,ev,h) |
Driving electricity consumption per ev in hour h [MW] |

Electric vehicles |
Time-series |
ev_ged_exog(n,ev,h) |
Grid electricity demand in case of uncontrolled charging (exogenous) per ev in hour h [MW] |

Electric vehicles |
Time-series |
n_ev_p(n,ev,h) |
Power rating of the charging station in hour h [MW] |

Prosumage |
Technology |
m_res_pro(n,tech) |
Maximum installable: renewables capacity [MW] |

Prosumage |
Technology |
m_sto_pro_e(n,sto) |
Maximum installable: storage energy [MWh] |

Prosumage |
Technology |
m_sto_pro_p(n,sto) |
Maximum installable: storage capacity [MW] |

Prosumage |
Technology |
phi_pro_load(n) |
Share of prosumagers among total load [0 1] |

Prosumage |
Technology |
phi_pro_self |
Minimum self-generation shares for prosumagers [0 1] |

Prosumage |
Technology |
phi_sto_pro_ini(n,sto) |
Prosumagers initial storage loading [0 1] |

Heat |
Costs |
pen_heat_fuel(n,bu,ch) |
Penalty term for non-electric fuel usage for hybrid heating technologies [EUR per MWh] |

Heat |
Technology |
area_floor(n,bu,ch) |
Floor area subject to specific heating technology in specific building type [m2] |

Heat |
Technology |
eta_dhw_aux_stat(n,bu,ch) |
Static efficiency for auxiliary DHW technologies [0 1] |

Heat |
Technology |
eta_heat_dyn(n,bu,ch) |
Static efficiency for heating technologies [0 1] |

Heat |
Technology |
eta_heat_stat(n,bu,ch) |
Static efficiency for heating technologies [0 1] |

Heat |
Technology |
n_heat_e(n,bu,ch) |
Maximum energy level of heating storage technologies [MWh] |

Heat |
Technology |
n_heat_p_in(n,bu,ch) |
Maximum power inflow into heating technologies [MW] |

Heat |
Technology |
n_heat_p_out(n,bu,ch) |
Maximum power outflow from heating technologies [MW] |

Heat |
Technology |
n_sets_dhw_e(n,bu,ch) |
SETS auxiliary DHW module - energy storage capacity [MWh] |

Heat |
Technology |
n_sets_dhw_p_in(n,bu,ch) |
SETS auxiliary DHW module - power rating - electricity intake [MW] |

Heat |
Technology |
n_sets_dhw_p_out(n,bu,ch) |
SETS auxiliary DHW module - power rating - DHW output [MW] |

Heat |
Technology |
n_sets_e(n,bu,ch) |
SETS - Energy storage capacity [MWh] |

Heat |
Technology |
n_sets_p_in(n,bu,ch) |
SETS - Power rating - electricity intake [MW] |

Heat |
Technology |
n_sets_p_out(n,bu,ch) |
SETS - Power rating - heat output [MW] |

Heat |
Technology |
phi_heat_ini(n,bu,ch) |
Inititial storage level of heating technologies [0 1] |

Heat |
Technology |
phi_heat_type(n,bu,ch) |
Share of heating type ch per building archetype bu [0 1] |

Heat |
Technology |
temp_sink(n,bu,ch) |
Heat pumps - sink temperature [Celsius degrees] |

Heat |
Time-series |
d_dhw(n,bu,ch,h) |
Hourly DHW demand [MWh per m2] |

Heat |
Time-series |
dh(n,bu,ch,h) |
Hourly heat demand [MWh per m2] |

Heat |
Time-series |
temp_source(n,bu,ch,h) |
Heat pumps - source temperature [degree Celsius] |

DSM |
Costs |
c_fix_dsm_cu(n,dsm) |
Annual fixed costs load curtailment capacity [EUR per MW per a] |

DSM |
Costs |
c_fix_dsm_shift(n,dsm) |
Annual fixed costs load shifting capacity [EUR per MW per a] |

DSM |
Costs |
c_inv_overnight_dsm_cu(n,dsm) |
Investment costs for DSM load curtailment: Overnight [EUR per MW] |

DSM |
Costs |
c_inv_overnight_dsm_shift(n,dsm) |
Investment costs for DSM load shifting: Overnight [EUR per MW] |

DSM |
Costs |
c_m_dsm_cu(n,dsm) |
DSM: hourly costs of load curtailment [EUR per MWh] |

DSM |
Costs |
c_m_dsm_shift(n,dsm) |
DSM: costs for load shifting [EUR per MWh] |

DSM |
Costs |
inv_interest_dsm_cu(n,dsm) |
Investment costs for DSM load curtailment: Interest rate [%] |

DSM |
Costs |
inv_interest_dsm_shift(n,dsm) |
Investment costs for DSM load shifting: Interest rate [%] |

DSM |
Technology |
eta_dsm_shift(n,dsm) |
DSM: Efficiency of load shifting technologies [0 1] |

DSM |
Technology |
inv_recovery_dsm_cu(n,dsm) |
Investment costs for DSM load curtailment: Recovery period [a] |

DSM |
Technology |
inv_recovery_dsm_shift(n,dsm) |
Investment costs for DSM load shifting: Recovery period [a] |

DSM |
Technology |
m_dsm_cu(n,dsm) |
DSM: Maximum installable capacity load curtailment [MW] |

DSM |
Technology |
m_dsm_shift(n,dsm) |
DSM: Maximum installable capacity load shifting [MW] |

DSM |
Technology |
t_dur_dsm_cu(n,dsm) |
DSM: Maximum duration load curtailment [h] |

DSM |
Technology |
t_dur_dsm_shift(n,dsm) |
DSM: Maximum duration load shifting [h] |

DSM |
Technology |
t_off_dsm_cu(n,dsm) |
DSM: Minimum recovery time between two load curtailment instances [h] |

DSM |
Technology |
t_off_dsm_shift(n,dsm) |
DSM: Minimum recovery time between two granular load upshift instances [h] |

Reserves |
Technology |
reserves_reaction(n,reserves) |
Activation reaction time for reserves qualities [min] |

Reserves |
Time-series |
phi_reserves_call(n,reserves,h) |
Hourly share of reserve provision that is actually activated [0 1] |

Reserves |
Time-series |
reserves_exogenous(n,reserves,h) |
Hourly reserve provision [MW] |

## Derived parameters

Type |
Symbol & domain |
Description and units |
---|---|---|

Costs |
c_m(n,tech) |
Marginal production costs for conventional plants [EUR per MWh] |

Costs |
c_i(n,tech) |
Annualized investment costs by conventioanl plant [EUR per MW] |

Costs |
c_i_res(n,tech) |
Annualized investment costs by renewable plant [EUR per MW] |

Costs |
c_i_sto_e(n,sto) |
Annualized investment costs storage energy [EUR per MWh] |

Costs |
c_i_sto_p(n,sto) |
Annualized investment costs storage capacity [EUR per MW] |

Costs |
c_i_rsvr_e(n,rsvr) |
Annualized investment costs storage energy [EUR per MWh] |

Costs |
c_i_rsvr_p(n,rsvr) |
Annualized investment costs storage capacity [EUR per MW] |

Costs |
c_i_dsm_cu(n,dsm) |
DSM: Annualized investment costs load curtailment [EUR per MW] |

Costs |
c_i_dsm_shift(n,dsm) |
DSM: Annualized investment costs load shifting [EUR per MW] |

Costs |
c_i_ntc(l) |
Investment for net transfer capacity [EUR per MW and km] |

## Variables

Type |
Symbol & domain |
Description and units |
---|---|---|

Variable |
Z |
Value objective function [Euro] |

Non-negative variable |
G_L(n,tech,h) |
Generation level in hour h [MWh] |

Non-negative variable |
G_UP(n,tech,h) |
Generation upshift in hour h [MWh] |

Non-negative variable |
G_DO(n,tech,h) |
Generation downshift in hour h [MWh] |

Non-negative variable |
G_RES(n,tech,h) |
Generation renewables type res in hour h [MWh] |

Non-negative variable |
CU(n,tech,h) |
Renewables curtailment technology res in hour h [MWh] |

Non-negative variable |
STO_IN(n,sto,h) |
Storage inflow technology sto hour h [MWh] |

Non-negative variable |
STO_OUT(n,sto,h) |
Storage outflow technology sto hour h [MWh] |

Non-negative variable |
STO_L(n,sto,h) |
Storage level technology sto hour h [MWh] |

Non-negative variable |
N_TECH(n,tech) |
Technology tech built [MW] |

Non-negative variable |
N_STO_E(n,sto) |
Storage technology built - Energy [MWh] |

Non-negative variable |
N_STO_P(n,sto) |
Storage loading and discharging capacity built - Capacity [MW] |

Non-negative variable |
RSVR_OUT(n,rsvr,h) |
Reservoirs: outflow in hour h [MWh] |

Non-negative variable |
RSVR_L(n,rsvr,h) |
Reservoirs: level in hour h [MWh] |

Non-negative variable |
N_RSVR_E(n,rsvr) |
Reservoirs: installed energy capacity [MWh] |

Non-negative variable |
N_RSVR_P(n,rsvr) |
Reservoirs: installed power capacity [MW] |

Variable |
F(l,h) |
Energy flow over link l in hour h [MWh] |

Non-negative variable |
NTC(l) |
Trade: installed NTC on line l [MW] |

Non-negative variable |
EV_CHARGE(n,ev,h) |
Electric vehicle charging vehicle profile ev hour h [MWh] |

Non-negative variable |
EV_DISCHARGE(n,ev,h) |
Electric vehicle discharging vehicle profile ev hour h [MWh] |

Non-negative variable |
EV_L(n,ev,h) |
Electric vehicle charging level vehicle profile ev hour h [MWh] |

Non-negative variable |
EV_PHEVFUEL(n,ev,h) |
Plug in hybrid electric vehicle conventional fuel use vehicle profile ev hour h [MWh] |

Non-negative variable |
EV_GED(n,ev,h) |
Grid electricity demand for mobility vehicle profile ev hour h [MWh] |

Non-negative variable |
CU_PRO(n,tech,h) |
Prosumage: curtailment of renewable generation in hour h [MWh] |

Non-negative variable |
G_MARKET_PRO2M(n,tech,h) |
Prosumage. energy sent to market in hour h [MWh] |

Non-negative variable |
G_MARKET_M2PRO(n,h) |
Prosumage: withdrawal of energy from market in hour h [MWh] |

Non-negative variable |
G_RES_PRO(n,tech,h) |
Prosumage: hourly renewables generation in hour h [MWh] |

Non-negative variable |
STO_IN_PRO2PRO(n,tech,sto,h) |
Prosumage: storage loading from generation for discharging to consumption in hour h [MWh] |

Non-negative variable |
STO_IN_PRO2M(n,tech,sto,h) |
Prosumage: storage loading from generation for discharging to market in hour h [MWh] |

Non-negative variable |
STO_IN_M2PRO(n,sto,h) |
Prosumage: storage loading from market for discharging to consumption in hour h [MWh] |

Non-negative variable |
STO_IN_M2M(n,sto,h) |
Prosumage: storage loading from market for discharging to market in hour h [MWh] |

Non-negative variable |
STO_OUT_PRO2PRO(n,sto,h) |
Prosumage: storage discharging to consumption from generation in hour h [MWh] |

Non-negative variable |
STO_OUT_PRO2M(n,sto,h) |
Prosumage: storage discharging to market from generation in hour h [MWh] |

Non-negative variable |
STO_OUT_M2PRO(n,sto,h) |
Prosumage: storage discharging to consumption from market in hour h [MWh] |

Non-negative variable |
STO_OUT_M2M(n,sto,h) |
Prosumage: storage discharging to market from market in hour h [MWh] |

Non-negative variable |
STO_L_PRO2PRO(n,sto,h) |
Prosumage: storage level generation to consumption in hour h [MWh] |

Non-negative variable |
STO_L_PRO2M(n,sto,h) |
Prosumage: storage level generation to market in hour h [MWh] |

Non-negative variable |
STO_L_M2PRO(n,sto,h) |
Prosumage: storage level market to consumotion in hour h [MWh] |

Non-negative variable |
STO_L_M2M(n,sto,h) |
Prosumage: storage level market to market in hour h [MWh] |

Non-negative variable |
N_STO_E_PRO(n,sto) |
Prosumage: installed storage energy [MWh] |

Non-negative variable |
N_STO_P_PRO(n,sto) |
Prosumage: installed storage power [MW] |

Non-negative variable |
STO_L_PRO(n,sto,h) |
Prosumage: overall storage level in hour h [MWh] |

Non-negative variable |
N_RES_PRO(n,tech) |
Prosumage: installed renewables capacities [MW] |

Non-negative variable |
H_DIR(n,bu,ch,h) |
Heating: direct heating in hour h for building type bu with haeting technology ch [MWh] |

Non-negative variable |
H_SETS_LEV(n,bu,ch,h) |
Heating: storage level SETS technologies [MWh] |

Non-negative variable |
H_SETS_IN(n,bu,ch,h) |
Heating: storage inflow SETS technologies [MWh] |

Non-negative variable |
H_SETS_OUT(n,bu,ch,h) |
Heating: storage outflow SETS technologies [MWh] |

Non-negative variable |
H_HP_IN(n,bu,ch,hh) |
Heating: electricity demand heat pump technologies [MWh] |

Non-negative variable |
H_STO_LEV(n,bu,ch,h) |
Heating: storage level storage technologies [MWh] |

Non-negative variable |
H_STO_IN_HP(n,bu,ch,h) |
Heating: storage inflow from heat pumps to storage technologies [MWh] |

Non-negative variable |
H_STO_IN_ELECTRIC(n,bu,ch,h) |
Heating: storage inflow from electric heating to storage technologies [MWh] |

Non-negative variable |
H_ELECTRIC_IN(n,bu,ch,h) |
Heating: hybrid electric heaters electricity demand [MWh] |

Non-negative variable |
H_STO_IN_FOSSIL(n,bu,ch,h) |
Heating: storage inflow from nonelectric heating to storage technologies [MWh] |

Non-negative variable |
H_STO_OUT(n,bu,ch,h) |
Heating: storage outflow from storage technologies [MWh] |

Non-negative variable |
H_DHW_DIR(n,bu,ch,h) |
Heating - domestic hot water: provision in case of direct electric heating [MWh] |

Non-negative variable |
H_DHW_STO_OUT(n,bu,ch,h) |
Heating - domestic hot water: DHW storage outflow [MWh] |

Non-negative variable |
H_DHW_AUX_ELEC_IN(n,bu,ch,h) |
Heating - domestic hot water: electrical energy input of auxiliary hot water tank for SETS [MWh] |

Non-negative variable |
H_DHW_AUX_LEV(n,bu,ch,h) |
Heating - domestic hot water: level of auxiliary hot water tank for SETS [MWh] |

Non-negative variable |
H_DHW_AUX_OUT(n,bu,ch,h) |
Heating - domestic hot water: auxiliary DHW provision for SETS [MWh] |

Non-negative variable |
DSM_CU(n,dsm,h) |
DSM: Load curtailment hour h [MWh] |

Non-negative variable |
DSM_UP(n,dsm,h) |
DSM: Load shifting up hour h technology dsm [MWh] |

Non-negative variable |
DSM_DO(n,dsm,h,hh) |
DSM: Load shifting down in hour hh to account for upshifts in hour h technology dsm [MWh] |

Non-negative variable |
DSM_UP_DEMAND(n,dsm,h) |
DSM: Load shifting up active for wholesale demand in hour h of technology dsm [MWh] |

Non-negative variable |
DSM_DO_DEMAND(n,dsm,h) |
DSM: Load shifting down active for wholesale demand in hour h of technology dsm [MWh] |

Non-negative variable |
N_DSM_CU(n,dsm) |
DSM: Load curtailment capacity [MW] |

Non-negative variable |
N_DSM_SHIFT(n,dsm) |
DSM: Load shifting capacity [MWh] |

Non-negative variable |
RP_DIS(n,reserves,tech,h) |
Reserve provision by conventionals in hour h [MW] |

Non-negative variable |
RP_NONDIS(n,reserves,tech,h) |
Reserve provision by renewables in hour h [MW] |

Non-negative variable |
RP_STO_IN(n,reserves,sto,h) |
Reserve provision by storage in in hour h [MW] |

Non-negative variable |
RP_STO_OUT(n,reserves,sto,h) |
Reserve provision by storage out in hour h [MW] |

Non-negative variable |
RP_EV_V2G(n,reserves,ev,h) |
Reserve provision by electric vehicles V2G hour h [MW] |

Non-negative variable |
RP_EV_G2V(n,reserves,ev,h) |
Reserve provision by electric vehicles G2V hour h [MW] |

Non-negative variable |
RP_DSM_CU(n,reserves,dsm,h) |
Reserve provision by DSM load curtailment in hour h [MW] |

Non-negative variable |
RP_DSM_SHIFT(n,reserves,dsm,h) |
Reserve provision by DSM load shifting in hour h [MW] |

Non-negative variable |
RP_RSVR(n,reserves,rsvr,h) |
Reserve provision by reservoirs h [MW] |

Non-negative variable |
RP_SETS(n,reserves,bu,ch,h) |
Reserve provision by SETS [MW] |

Non-negative variable |
RP_SETS_AUX(n,reserves,bu,ch,h) |
Reserve provision by SETS auxiliary DHW modules [MW] |

Non-negative variable |
RP_HP(n,reserves,bu,ch,h) |
Reserve provision by heat pumps [MW] |

Non-negative variable |
RP_H_ELEC(n,reserves,bu,ch,h) |
Reserve provision by hybrid electric heaters [MW] |